General information

Subject type: Mandatory

Coordinator: Julián Horrillo Tello

Trimester: Third term

Credits: 6

Teaching staff: 

Virginia Espinosa Duro

Teaching languages

Both the teaching of the subject and the teaching support material will be given in Catalan. As for the interlocutor, questions may be asked in any of the three co-official languages ​​and answered in the same language as they were asked, in order to facilitate the student's comprehension. 

Some sessions may include the use of materials in English (mainly articles and technical specifications).

As for the evaluation activities, they will also be formulated in Catalan, but they can be answered indiscriminately, in any of the three co-official languages.


Specific skills
  • CE23: Understand the applications of electronic instrumentation.

  • CE24: Train to design analog, digital and power electronic systems.

Transversal competences
  • CT2: That students have the ability to work as members of an interdisciplinary team either as one more member, or performing management tasks in order to contribute to developing projects with pragmatism and a sense of responsibility, assuming commitments taking into account count available resources.


The subject of Instrumentation is part of the subject of Analog Electronic Systems (#), which is taught entirely throughout the three quarters of the third year of the Degree. In this subject use is made of the different techniques of analysis and analog electronic design (-and digital in the background-), introduced in the previous subjects of electronics of the degree (Analog Electronics I & II i Digital Electronics II mainly) in order to be able to acquire and process data on physico-chemical quantities, designing and understanding in this way the principles of the SData Acquisition systems (DAQs).

(#): In order to register for the subject, it is strongly recommended to register in advance for the two subjects that complete the subject of Analog Electronic Systems (Analog Electronics I and II), as well as passing the subject in particular Analog Electronics II, second trimester  

Learning outcomes

This subject contributes to the achievement of the following learning outcomes specified by the subject to which it belongs:

-RA1: Analyzes application circuits of operational, linear and nonlinear amplifiers. (CE24)

-RA2: Know the structure and operation of industrial sensors. (CE23)
-RA3: Be able to limit the errors of the measurements. (CE23)
-RA4: Know the instrument interconnection buses. (CE23, CE24)

At the end of the course the student must be able to:

  • Analyze, predict and correct errors in the data acquisition process.
  • Interpret and design the signal conditioning of the different types of generic sensors.
  • Model the different structures of existing Data Acquisition Systems.
  • Use relevant devices for the design and implementation of basic general purpose DAQs.

Working methodology

The course consists of 6 hours a week of a synchronous nature: 4 theory classes in the classroom (face-to-face under normal conditions) and 2 sessions scheduled for internships in the laboratory. The work in the classroom will be based on classes where the teacher will explain on the one hand, the concepts of theory, accompanied by multiple examples and on the other, exclusive sessions of real problem solving will be proposed following the methodology. PBL (Problem Based Learning).

In the problem-solving sessions, both individual and collective experimentation are proposed, working on both the approach and the resolution of the same following the Socratic heuristic.

Additionally, in order to encourage the follow-up of the session and at the teacher's discretion, students may obtain one plus in addition to the mark of the different partial exams, for the resolution and / or the correct approach of the problems worked in class. With regard to the remaining problems to be solved in the collection, the necessary tools and guidelines will be provided in order to be able to finalize and / or solve them, outside the classroom space and within the framework of the teaching hours. 'autonomous learning.

The practical activities will be carried out in groups of two students in the control laboratory. The following are the advanced learning methodologies used in the design of practices 2 and 3:

  • Practice 2: Methodologies PBL (Project Based Learning) of the LbD (Learning by Doing).
  • Practice 3: Methodology LbD (Learning by Doing).

The class notes are made available to the students, which form part of the basis of learning and achievement of the subject, together with the collections of problems corresponding to Blocks 1 and 2 of the subject and the practice files.

It should be noted that the PDF notes delivered correspond to PPT slides that are used as the plot thread of the theoretical sessions. They are therefore not self-contained and it will therefore be necessary for the students to complete them in class with the information, examples and detailed contributions addressed in the course of the different expository sessions.



1.1 Introduction and Parameters: Bandwidth. 

1.2 Amplifiers real operations: Product GBW. 


2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Hall sensor.

2.3 Optoelectronic sensors.

2.4 Temperature Sensors.

2.5 Extensiometric Gauges.

3. SIGNAL CONDITIONING: Specific Circuits.

3.1 Wheatstone Bridge.

3.2 Differential amplifier. CMRR.                                                                                                          

3.3 Instrumentation Amplifier: Discrete and integrated circuits.                                                                                                                  


4.1 Introduction to DAQs.                                                         

   4.1.1 Block Diagram and Terminology.

   4.1.2 Sampling Theory.         

4.2 Digitization:

   4.2.1 Sample & Hold.

   4.2.2 Analog-Digital Conversion               

4.3 Implementation of DAQs: Architectures, conditions and design criteria.

Learning activities

In order to gather evidence of the achievement of the expected learning outcomes, the following evaluative learning activities will be carried out:


[Linked to the achievement of Competences CB2, CT2, CE23 (RA2, RA3) and CE24 (RA1, RA4)].


Analysis, experimentation and design of the conditioning circuits of the basic optoelectronic sensors.

The specific objectives of the practice are:

  • To know the mechanism of operation of the optoelectronic devices IRED, Photodiode and Phototransistor.
  • Analyze the characteristics of the optoelectronic loop from:
    • The Radiation Spectrum of the photoemitter and the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptor.
    • The radiation patterns of the photoemitter and of radiant sensitivity of the photoreceptor.
  • Familiarize yourself with the signal conditioning systems of OE devices:
    • Phototransistor in common emitter configuration.
    • Effect of reverse polarization on the photodiode.
  • Find the basic differences between the different photoreceptors.


Design and implementation of a Digital Thermometer (Temperature DAQ), emulating the behavior of the RS Digital Thermometer. The signal conditioning will be performed by a Wheatstone Bridge and one Instrumentation Amplifier in its discrete and / or integrated modalities.

The specific objectives of the practice are:

  • Enter the temperature probes as paradigmatic resistive temperature sensors (RTDs) for temperature measurement in the sectors of industry, environmental measurement and aviation, mainly.
  • Familiarize yourself with the assembly of the wheatstone bridge as a standard signal conditioning system of the family of resistive sensors (thermoresistors, strain gauges, magnetoresistors, etc.) and its main characteristics in terms of sensitivity and linearity.
  • Interpretation of the pre-balancing procedure of the bridge.
  • Introduce considerations on the actual amplification of the differential signal at the bridge output from the use of drivers and the initial proposal corresponding to the standard differential amplifier.
  • Find the differences between discrete instrumentation amplifiers and integrated solutions offered by different manufacturers of electronic components.


Acquisition, analysis and processing of audio signals (voice) through the sound card (sound card) installed on the computer (dedicated data acquisition card) and governed by the Matlab programming environment and the toolboxes of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing.

The specific objectives of the practice are:

  • Loyalty to the Matlab program, as an engineering reference software, to analyze data, develop algorithms and / or create models.
  • Familiarize yourself with the Matlab programming tool and the Data Acquisition Toolbox, to acquire and analyze audio signals.
  • Reinterpretation of the Fourier transform, the FFT i the signal spectrum.


At the teacher's discretion, it will be proposed in parallel to carry out some parts of the experiments corresponding to the first and second practice using the package for editing schematics and simulation of the Cadence environment (Orchard+Pspice) (a basic knowledge of the same is presupposed, once the two predecessor subjects that make up / complete the subject of Analog Electronic Systems together with the subject of instrumentation (Analog Electronics I and II).

It will be necessary to make a report by groups of each one of the practices, that will finalize with an obligatory section of conclusions. This last section of synthesis, will count 20% of the note of the practices 1 and 3, and 10% of the practice 2.

The final number of sessions to carry out the internship will be a function of the current calendar.


[Linked to the achievement of Competences CB2, CT2, CE23 (RA2, RA3) and CE24 (RA1)].

It combines a first individual activity of medium duration and low intensity, which consists of two sections and will be carried out at the beginning of the course, with a second, short duration and high intensity, which will take place in the classroom. , in groups of two people, on a day and time set in advance.

The following are the general features of these two tasks:

  • EXERCISE 1: (4%): It consists of two parts:
    • 1ª Part: Carrying out a research exercise and parameterization of a specific sensor based on the identification of its most important characteristics and specifications (sensitivity, linearity, margin of operation, response speed, etc ...).
    • 2ª Part: Carrying out a standard review blind peer-review of the document delivered by one of the classmates, in the 1st part of the activity. It will consist of the review of the assigned anonymous document, providing a report of major and / or minor revisions  (corrections, clarifications, improvements and / or extensions) accompanied by the corresponding justification comments.
  • EXERCISES 2 and 3 (3%+3%=6%): Group resolution (preferably internship group members), of two specific problems, post delivery of the internship report 1 and 2 respectively. This activity will be done with notes and will be delivered at the end of the class.

ACTIVITIES 3 and 4: PARTIAL EXAMS 1 and 2 (30% + 35% = 65%):

[Linked to the achievement of Competences CB2, CE23 (RA2) and CE24 (RA1)].

  • There are two partial exams that each consist of solving a certain number of problems, which will generally range between three and four, depending on the nature and complexity of the same.
  • The second partial exam will include explicitly, the contents of the 2nd part of the subject and implicitly, some of the 1st part of the same (and evaluated in the context of the first partial).
  • The first exam will be held during the course on a day set at the beginning of the course and the second will be held on the date scheduled by the director of studies after the end of the class period and within the stipulated period of exams.

Evaluation system

The final grade will be the weighted average of the grades of the assessable activities mentioned, as specified below:


It will be necessary to obtain a minimum mark of 3 in the two written tests, to be able to choose to apply the corresponding weighting.

If the average of the subject is less than 5, 25% of the qualification of practices and 10% of the qualification obtained in the component of problems will be maintained and a mechanism of recovery of the activities will be activated in parallel 3 and 4 corresponding to the partial examinations, which will consist of the resolution of one Recovery Exam and which will account for the 65% of the total calculation of the same.

In case of passing the overall subject under this second assumption, the final grade of the subject will remain bounded a 5.



PALLÀS ARENY, R. Sensors and Signal Conditioners. 4ª Edition. 2005. ISBN 9788426713445.

ESPINOSA DURÓ, Virginia. Sensors and Signal Conditioning: Class Notes. Collection of problems. Internship dossier. ESUPT Internal Publication. Tecnocampus. 2021 edition.


PALLÀS ARENY, R. Acquisition and Distribution of Signals. 3rd Ed. Marcombo. 1993.

PÉREZ GARCIA, et al, Electronic Instrumentation. Ed. Thomson. Paraninfo. 2004. ISBN 84-9732-166-9.