General information

Subject type: Basic

Coordinator: Jesus Ezequiel Martínez Marín

Trimester: Third term

Credits: 6

Teaching staff: 

Jose Miguel Aliaga Hernandez

Teaching languages

  • Spanish

Spanish (100%)


Specific skills
  • Show knowledge and skills for the coordination of the departments of purchasing, supply, production and distribution of a product to any company, analyzing different types of techniques

  • Identify the basic economic concepts, as well as the microeconomic and macroeconomic functioning of the markets

  • Select and use quantitative instruments for decision making and contrasting economic hypotheses


For international logistics and maritime business it is essential to understand the role of companies in international markets, the development of international trade in different market structures and the interaction of countries and trade policies in intergovernmental economic organizations. The growing globalization of markets accentuates the need to devote attention to this area.

Learning outcomes

The general learning objectives of the subject are:

• Ask questions and provide students with the tools to analyze the existing links and implications between business competitiveness, economic development, configuration of the different economic blocs at a global level, intergovernmental economic organizations and international trade.

• To offer students a theoretical and practical perspective on international commercial transactions; so that in their professional future in the field of logistics and maritime business they can recognize different scenarios, analyze, evaluate and make decisions.

• To equip students with the capabilities and skills to discover and understand the close relationships between international trade, international logistics and maritime business; both at an economic, legal, documentary and operational level.

Working methodology

The face-to-face sessions combine theoretical exposition with practical examples that will serve to illustrate the concepts and theoretical foundations explained.

Additionally, students will have to work outside the classroom on theoretical and practical knowledge based on readings, audiovisual material, online documents, databases and the material of face-to-face sessions. The results of this work will be evaluated based on questionnaires using the Moodle platform, the delivery of exercises solved individually and with the delivery and presentation of projects carried out in teams; depending on the type of activity.


0. Introduction to International Trade.

a. Review of different theories and economic models that offer explanations about International Trade: its scope and limits.

b. International Trade, International Logistics, Maritime Business, Economic Development and Globalization.


1. Configuration of International Trade in a Globalized World.

1.1. Intra-Community Trade, Foreign Trade and Multilateral Trade.

1.1.1. Intra-community trade.

1.2. Foreign Trade.

1.2.1. Content of the notion and scope.

1.2.2. Spanish perspective.

1.2.3. State Commerce.

1.3. Multilateral trade.

1.3.1. Background: the General Agreement on Customs Tariffs and Trade.

1.3.2. The World Trade Organization. Objectives and Means, Members and accession procedures, Institutional structure. Overview of the WTO agreements. Derivative principles: Most-favoured-nation treatment, National treatment, Promotion of fair competition and Transparency. WTO regulations: progressive development of international trade regulation. Dispute Resolution System: General Regime and Arbitration.

1.4. New Guidelines for Multilateral Trade.

1.4.1. The appearance on the scene of the Least Developed Countries.

1.4.2. Dialectic multilateralism / regionalism in International Trade.

1.4.3. International Trade and Environmental Protection.


2. International Trade and Regional Integration Models.

2.1. Levels of integration: Free Trade Zone, Customs Union, Common Market.

2.2. Integration Models in Europe: The European Union.

2.3. Integration models in North America, Latin America and the Caribbean.

2.4. Integration Models in Asia and the Pacific.

2.4.1. China: The Silk Road Economic Belt

2.5. Integration Models in Africa.

2.6. The Mega-regional Agreements

2.6.1. Transpacific Partnership Agreement.

2.6.2. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Association

2.6.3. Pacific Alliance.

2.6.4. Regional Integral Economic Association.


3. Brakes and Drivers of International Trade.

3.1. Tariff barriers: content and types of tariffs.

3.2. Non-tariff barriers.

3.2.1. Concept and Classes.

3.2.2. Import quotas or quotas.

3.2.3. Technical regulations and rules.

3.2.4. Import and export licenses.

3.2.5. Rules of Origin: Made in Spain, Made in Europe or Made in the World?

3.2.6. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

3.2.7. Social dumping and ecological dumping.

3.3. Compensatory instruments of International Trade.

3.3.1. Subsidies

3.3.2. Anti-dumping measures.

3.3.3. safeguards

3.4. Trade Facilitation and International Trade.

3.5. Trade Logistics and International Trade.


4. International Trade, Intergovernmental Organizations and their Open Data policies.

4.1. The World Trade Organization (see section 1..3.2)

4.2. The World Customs Organization.

4.3. The International Monetary Fund.

4.4. The World Bank.

4.5. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

4.6. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

4.7. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).

4.8. Other regional institutions in ASIA.

4.9. Free and free access data sources: International Trade and Open Data.


5. The Company and international trade.

5.1. Small and Medium Enterprises and exports.

5.1.1. Company analysis: self-assessment.

5.1.2. The decision to export: selection of products, markets, access channels, pricing and management of relationships with partners.

5.1.3. Cultural, organizational changes and integration of functional areas: finance, purchasing, production, logistics, sales and marketing.

5.1.4. International digital marketing: scope and limits. Electronic commerce

5.2. The Multinational Company and international trade.

5.2.1. Differences between exporting, internationalized and globalized companies.

5.2.2. Different levels of productive / logistic postponement and their relationship with the degree of internationalization and globalization of multinational companies.

5.2.3. Intra-group International Trade.


6. International sales.

6.1. Criteria for considering a sale international.

6.2. The international "Lex Mercatoria".

6.3. The UNIDROIT principles on international commercial contracts.

6.4. The Vienna Convention: importance, objectives and excluded aspects.

6.5. Formation of the international sales contract.

6.5.1. The preliminary deals and agreements of intent.

6.5.2. The Offer.

6.5.3. The acceptance

6.6. Obligations of the seller.

6.6.1. Delivery of goods.

6.6.2. Delivery of documents related to goods.

6.6.3. Transfer of property.

6.6.4. Conformity of the goods.

6.6.5. Problem of defective or non-conforming goods.

6.6.6. Third party claims.

6.7. Obligations of the buyer.

6.7.1. Reception of the goods.

6.7.2. Payment of the price.

6.7.3. International means of payment: simple payment order, cheques, bills of exchange, payment order against delivery of documents, documentary remittance (order for delivery of documents against payment), commercial letter of credit, documentary credit, bilateral guarantee.

6.7.4. Documentary credit as a means of payment and banking technique: concept and operation, classification of documentary credits, instrumentation of documentary credit.

6.8. Transfer of risk.

6.8.1. The risk in international buying and selling.

6.8.2. The transfer of risk according to the Vienna Convention.

6.8.3. Distribution of costs of the operation.

6.9. Breach of contract.

6.9.1. The essential breach.

6.9.2. Forced non-compliance.

6.9.3. The foreseeable breach.

6.9.4. Remedies for breach.

6.9.5. Compensation for damages.

6.9.6. Duty to preserve goods.

6.9.7. International litigation: court or arbitration procedure.

6.10. Means of preventing contractual breach.

6.10.1. The penal clauses.

6.10.2. The Domain Reservation Clause: concept and use.

6.10.3. The "leasing": concept and classes.

6.10.4. "Factoring": concept, types and interest of "factoring" in international sales.

6.10.5. The "fortaiting": concept, characteristics and instrumentation.

6.10.6. Real guarantees: concept, type and their use in international contracting.

6.10.7. Personal guarantees: bonds, automatic and conditional guarantees; of bidding, execution and reimbursement.

6.10.8. Credit insurance: instrumentation and operation. Insurable risks and excluded risks. Policy classes and maximum coverage limits.

Learning activities

The different activities and their weight in the final grade are summarized in the following table:


Evaluation elements

Type of Activity

Weight (%)

Content moodle tests ( )

Conceptual and monitoring of the subject


Resolution and delivery of 5 exercises to be done individually ( )




Completion and presentation of a group project ( )




Participation ( )

Conceptual and monitoring of the subject


Final exam (a minimum of 5 points is required to make an average)




Evaluation system

( ) A minimum of 5 points is needed in the average of the continuous assessment activities.

Completion of the final exam is a necessary condition in order to obtain a quantitative qualification for the course. In case of not attending the final exam, the student will receive the grade of "Not presented".

Students who do not achieve a 5 on the final exam or a 5 on the weighted average of the continuous assessment items will receive the lowest grade as their course grade.

Continuous assessment items are not recoverable.

In the case of students who have obtained more than 5 points in the continuous assessment, but have not passed the subject, the summary assessment can be recovered through a recovery exam on the date set.

In the event of not attending the make-up exam, the student will keep the same grade obtained. In the case of attending the make-up exam, the student will obtain the new qualification according to the following criteria:

Recovery exam: 50%

Continuous assessment: 50%

For the elements of continuous assessment, the grades obtained regularly during the course will be maintained.



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WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, World Trade Report, available online at

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VAN HOUTTE, HANS (2001): The law of international trade. Sweet & Maxwell, 2nd ed.

MATTHIAS HERDEGEN (2013): Principles of International Economic Law. Ed Oxford University Press.

SCHMITTHOFF, CM (1990): Export Trade. The law and practice of International Trade, 9ª ed., London.


LETTERMAN, G. GREGORY (2002): UNIDROIT's rules in practice: standard international contracts and applicable rules. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

CARRASCOSA GONZÁLEZ, JAVIER (2011): The drafting of international contracts. Colex.

OLIVA BLÁZQUER, FRANCISCO (2002): International sale of goods: scope of application of the Vienna Convention of 1980. Ed. Throwing the White.

SCHWENZER, INGEBORG & SCHLECHTRIEM, PETER (2005): Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). Oxford University Press, 2nd. ed.

WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM, The Global Competitiveness Report, available online at