General information

Subject type: Basic

Coordinator: Carolina Chabrera Sanz

Trimester: First term

Credits: 6

Teaching staff: 

Lluís Force Sanmartin
Ishar Dalmau Santamaria 
Josep Manuel Cancio Trujillo 


Basic skills
  • CB2_That students know how to apply their knowledge to their job or vocation in a professional way and have the skills that need to be demonstrated through the elaboration and defense of arguments and the resolution of problems within their area of ​​study

Specific skills
  • CE6_Apply health care information and communication technologies and systems

  • CE7_Know the pathophysiological processes and their manifestations and the risk factors that determine the states of health and disease in the different stages of the life cycle

  • CE9_Recognize life-threatening situations and know how to perform basic and advanced life support maneuvers

General competencies
  • CG6_Basing nursing interventions on scientific evidence and available media

  • CG1_To be able, in the field of nursing, to give adequate technical and professional attention to the health needs of the people they care for, in accordance with their state of development of the scientific knowledge of each moment and with the levels of quality and safety that are established in the applicable legal and deontological norms

Transversal competences
  • CT 1 Develop the ability to assess inequalities based on sex and gender, to design solutions


At the beginning of academic training, it is essential for future health professionals to acquire generic but at the same time solid knowledge about the concept of illness. This involves the study of the potential causes that cause it, the mechanisms by which these etiologies act in a harmful way for the body and finally the disorders and symptoms they produce in the function and structure of organs and systems. It is precisely this last concept, which refers to pathophysiology, the final purpose of the subject before us.

These functional as well as structural alterations determine the clinical manifestations of the diseases and it is essential that students can link in a reasoned way the symptoms and signs of each disease with its pathophysiology.

In the subject of pathophysiology (I and II) the generic knowledge applicable to any of the systems and apparatuses of the human organism are introduced; such as the concept of health and disease, aging, injury and cell death, environmental pathology and inheritance, tumor pathology and microbiology. This basic knowledge is always applied through a syndromic perspective to the specific diseases of the different systems that include among others the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, nervous, sensory and osteoarticular system, hematology and metabolism and the endocrinology.

Learning outcomes

LO 8. Deepen the basic anatomical-physiological issues that allow the understanding of organic dysfunction.

LO 9. Understand therapeutic and instrumental measures.

LO 10. Apply the knowledge acquired in laboratory situations and case resolution.

LO 11. Use scientific and technical vocabulary related to pathological processes.

LO 12. Describe and integrate the pathophysiological process of the most prevalent diseases, including critical, advanced and terminal processes.

LO 13. Develop a global and integrative view of the main pathophysiological processes, including critical, advanced and terminal processes.

LO 14. Know the basic life support directions and maneuvers.

LO 15. Describe and identify the manifestations of the main mental disorders.

LO 16. Describe and identify the clinical manifestations of situations arising from gender violence.

LO 26: Identify gender deviations in existing knowledge about health-illness processes

LO 29: Analyze differences by sex and gender inequalities in etiology, anatomy, physiology and pathologies; in differential diagnosis, therapeutic options and pharmacological response and in prognosis: in care for people, as well as in other types of diagnoses and health interventions.


Working methodology

MD1. Lectures, classes aimed at debate and clarification of contents, discussion classes on scientific readings.

MD2. Seminars

MD3. Group work for case studies. Cooperative learning activities.

MD5. Presentations of topics by students. Preparation and presentation of simulated situations. Problem analysis using problem-based learning.

MD6. Face-to-face tutorials in groups or individually

MD11. Self-employment

Readings of recommended texts, articles, guides, etc.

Preparation of the topics for group work and for the presentation of the same

Study of the contents worked in the subject

Preparation of evaluations


Plenary exhibition sessions (40-42 hours)

1. Pathology of the respiratory system (8 hours)

1.1. Introduction to the pathology of the respiratory system

1.1.1. Morphological and functional aspects

1.1.2. Physical examination of the respiratory system

1.1.3. Specific complementary tests for the study of the respiratory system Fibrobronchoscopy and Respiratory Functional Tests Pulse oximetry and arterial gasometry

1.2. Acute respiratory failure and hypoxia-induced disorders

1.3. Obstructive pulmonary disease

1.3.1. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and bronchiectasis.

1.3.2. Bronchial asthma

1.4. Respiratory allergies.

1.5. Infections of the lower respiratory tract

1.5.1. Flu

1.5.2. Acute tracheobronchitis

1.5.3. Pneumonia

1.5.4. Pulmonary tuberculosis

1.5.5. Pulmonary aspergillosis

1.5.6 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

1.6. Interstitial and / or restrictive lung diseases

1.7. Other lung diseases: atelectasis and condensation

1.8. Pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension

1.9. Pleural and mediastinal disorders

1.9.1. Pleural reservoir

1.9.2. Pneumothorax

1.10. Respiratory system neoplasms

1.10.1. Bronchial neoplasm

1.10.2. Mesothelioma and other pleural neoplasms

2. Sensory Organ Disorders (2 hours)

2.1. Otorhinolaryngological pathology

2.1.1. External ear disorders

2.1.2. Disorders of the middle ear and Eustachian tube. Barotrauma.

2.1.3. Disorders of the inner ear and vestibular system

2.1.4. Nose disorders

2.1.5. Pharyngeal disorders

2.1.6. Laryngeal disorders

2.1.7. Otolaryngological neoplasms

2.1.8. Upper respiratory tract infections Cold Pharyngitis and tonsillitis Sinusitis

2.2. Ophthalmic pathology

2.2.1. Pathology of the conjunctiva, cornea and uvea

2.2.2. Pathology of ocular pressure

2.2.3. Crystalline pathology

2.2.4. Pathology of the vitreous and retina

2.2.5. Optic nerve pathology

2.2.6. Eye movement pathology

2.2.7. Pathology of accessory structures

3. Pathology of the Nephrourinary System (8 hours)

3.1. Introduction to the pathology of the nephrourinary system

3.1.1. Morphological and functional aspects

3.1.2. Specific complementary examinations for the study of the nephrourinary system Tests for the study of glomerular and tubular function Analysis of urine characteristics Renal biopsy

3.2. Hydroelectrolytic disorders

3.2.1. Acid-base balance: acidosis and alkalosis

3.2.2. Hydrosaline balance disorders: dehydration and hyperhydration

3.2.3. Disorders of sodium, chlorine and potassium

3.3. Acute and chronic renal failure

3.4. Glomerular pathology and nephrotic syndrome

3.5. Tubular-interstitial nephritis

3.6. Urinary tract disorders

3.6.1. Obstruction of urinary flow Kidney stones Hydronephrosis

3.7. Urinary tract infections

3.7.1. Asymptomatic bacteria

3.7.2. Cystitis

3.7.3. Prostatitis

3.7.4. Pyelonephritis

3.7.5. Renal abscess

3.7.6. Urinary tract infection associated with bladder catheterization

3.8. Renal and urinary neoplasms

4. Genital and reproductive pathology (3 hours)

4.1. Male genital tract

4.1.1. Pathology of the penis, scrotum and testicles

4.1.2. Prostate pathology Prostatitis Benign prostatic hyperplasia Prostate carcinoma

4.1.3. Gynecomastia

4.2. Female genital tract

4.2.1. Inflammatory disorders of the vulva, vagina and cervix

4.2.2. Gynecological neoplasms: cervix, endometrium and ovary

4.2.3. Menstrual disorders Dysfunctional uterine bleeding Endometriosis

4.2.4. Breast pathology Breast fibrocystic changes Breast tumors

5. Introduction to tumor pathology (1 hour)

5.1. Aging, cell death and apoptosis

5.2. Carcinogenesis

5.3. Antitumor defense

5.4. Manifestations of cancer

6. Hematopoietic and lymphatic system (6 hours)

6.1. Pathology of the immune system

6.1.1. Immunodeficiencies: primary and secondary

6.1.2. Immunology of transplants

6.2. Genetic disorders

6.2.1. Chromosomal disorders: numerical and structural alternations

6.2.2. Genetic mutations

6.2.3. Mendelian inheritance: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and sex-linked

6.2.4. Non-Mendelian inheritance: mitochondrial

6.2.5. Polygenic and multifactorial inheritance

6.2.6. Cytogenetic and molecular studies

6.3. Introduction to hematology

6.3.1. General concepts hematopoiesis

6.3.2. Laboratory parameters

6.3.3. Study of the bone marrow

6.4. Red blood cell disorders

6.4.1. Iron metabolism

6.4.2. Anemias

6.4.3. Polyglobulia and polycythemia

6.5. Pathology of leukocytes

6.5.1. Quantitative and functional disorders

6.5.2. Acute and chronic myeloproliferative syndromes

6.5.3. Lymphoproliferative syndromes

6.5.4. Monoclonal gammopathy

6.6. Pathology of hemostasis

6.6.1. Platelet pathology

6.6.2. Pathology of coagulation factors

6.6.3. Combined disorders of hemostasis

6.6.4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation

6.6.5. States of thrombophilia and hypercoagulability

7. Cardiovascular pathology (11 hours)

7.1. Introduction to the pathology of the circulatory system

7.1.1. Morphological and functional aspects

7.1.2. Physical examination of the circulatory system

7.1.3. Specific complementary tests for the study of the cardiovascular system: echocardiogram, echo-doppler and cardiac catheterization

7.2. Pericardial diseases

7.2.1. Acute pericarditis

7.2.2. Constrictive pericarditis

7.3. Cardiac pathology

7.3.1. Basic Electrocardiography and Heart Rhythm Disorders

7.3.2. Heart failure

7.3.3. Shock

7.3.4. Valvular heart diseases

7.3.5. Ischemic cardiopathy

7.3.6. Congenital heart diseases

7.3.7. Cardiomyopathies

7.3.8. Heart transplant

7.4. Vascular pathology

7.4.1. Arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular risk

7.4.2. Acute and chronic arterial insufficiency

7.4.3. Arterial aneurysms

7.4.4. Disorders of venous drainage

7.4.5. Lymphatic drainage disorders

7.4.6. Vasculitis and Raynaud's Phenomenon

7.4.7. Blood pressure disorders: hypertension and hypotension

8. Mental disorders (Teacher: (2 hours)

8.1. Personality disorders

8.2. Mood disorders: depression

8.3. Anxiety disorders

8.4. Disorders of thought and will: schizophrenia

8.5. Eating disorders


Seminars (11 hours)

It will be carried out in a split way, each seminar in two class groups, with half of the students enrolled in the subject in each group.

  • Seminar 1. Practical electrocardiography by analyzing arrhythmias per monitor during the seminar
  • Seminar 2. Interpretation of venous balances, hydroelectrolytic and water balances using practical clinical cases
  • Seminar 3. Resolution of a syllabus of short questions, summary of Pathophysiology 2 with oral presentation in class.
  • Seminar 4. Interpretation of respiratory functional tests and arterial gasometry
  • Seminar 5. Review and resolution of clinical cases of hematology and oncology
  • Seminar 6. Interactive session with analysis of the answers of the partial examination of the subject carried out by the whole class.

Learning activities

Activity ECTS Hours Working methodology

AF1. Master class

2 50

MD1. Lectures, classes aimed at debate and clarification of contents, discussion classes on scientific readings.

AF2. Face-to-face tutorials

AF6 Group work





MD2. Seminars

MD3. Group work for case studies. Cooperative learning activities.

MD5. Presentations of topics by students. Preparation and presentation of simulated situations. Problem analysis using problem-based learning.

MD6. Face-to-face tutorials in groups or individually

 AF7. Individual work

AF9. Personal study





MD11. Self-employment

Readings of recommended texts, articles, guides, etc.

Preparation of the topics for group work and for the presentation of the same

Study of the contents worked in the subject

Preparation of evaluations


Evaluation system

The assessment of generic competences will be carried out continuously through group sessions and the quality of individual work. Different activities will be requested throughout the term as a source of evaluation, so that the student will be able to know, also in a continuous way, his own evolution.

The evaluation of the specific competences will be carried out by carrying out two written tests on the subject taught in the plenary classes, and the analysis of the participation and of the individual and group works presented in the seminars throughout the term.

A system of quantitative (from 0 to 10) and qualitative (suspended, approved, notable, excellent and honors enrollment) will be used according to RD 1125/2003.

The following table specifies the evaluation systems and their weight in the final grade.

Evaluation activities Weighting

SE1. Elimination partial written test of the evaluated subject


SE3 and SE4.

Seminars, group work, participation, preparation and presentation of simulated situations, cooperative learning activities and assessment of the study during the course through moodle tests


SE1. Written test at the end of the term

Recovery period  

Written test of recovery, at the end of the term, by the students that have not reached the competitions foreseen along the course


SE1. 25% for students who have passed the partial exam and 50% for those who are examined in the whole subject of Pathophysiology 2.

The written recovery test will include all the subject of Pathophysiology 2, regardless of the mark obtained in the partial or final exams.

The remaining 50% of the grade will correspond to the continuous assessment and seminars held during the academic year.

The evaluation criteria of the activities and the characteristics of the different written tests will be presented in the first days of class and will be posted in the virtual classroom of the ESCS where they can be consulted by all students thus favoring the clarity and transparency of the same.

In the partial exam it will be essential to pass and be able to eliminate the subject, to show that all the knowledge imparted has been achieved, by obtaining a minimum grade of 5 out of 10.

At the time of the second partial, final and recovery exam, the average will only be taken with the continuous assessment and the seminars, if a score equal to or higher than 5 out of 10 is obtained in the written test.

To pass the course, a minimum final grade of 5 out of 10 must be achieved, once the written tests and the continuous assessment have been considered.

The total or partial copy in any of the learning activities will mean a "Not Presented" in the subject, without option to present in the proof of recovery and without prejudice of the opening of a file for this reason 



F. Javier Laso. Introduction to clinical medicine. Pathophysiology and semiology, 4th edition. Editorial ELSEVIER Spain. Barcelona 2020.

Murray, PR, Rosenthal, KS & Pfaller, MA Medical Microbiology. 8th edition. Editorial Elsevier. Barcelona 2017.


J. Pastrana, G. Garcia de Casasola. Pathophysiology and basic general pathology for health sciences. Editorial Elsevier, 1st edition 2013.

V. Kumar. Robbins, Human Pathology, 8th edition. Editorial Elsevier. Barcelona 2008.

Carol M. Porth. Pathophysiology. Health-illness: a conceptual approach, 7th edition. Editorial Medica Panamericana. Madrid 2006.

JL Perez Arellano. SISINIO DE CASTRO. Manual of General Pathology, 6th edition. Editorial Elsevier. Barcelona 2006

Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson. Fitzpatrick: Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. 6th edition. Editorial Medica Panamericana 2011

Ferrándiz C. Clinical dermatology. 3ª ed. Editorial Elsevier. Barcelona 2009

Gerard J. Tortora & Bryan H. Derrickson. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 11th edition. Editorial Médica Panamericana. Madrid 2011.

John. E Hall. GUYTON & HALL. Treatise on Medical Physiology, 12th edition. Editorial Elsevier. Barcelona 2011

Frank H Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy 5th edition. Editorial ELSEVIER MASSONBarcelona 2011

Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case. Introduction to microbiology, 9th edition. Editorial Médica Panamericana. Madrid 2007


The Cochrane Collaboration:


Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology:

World Health Organization (WHO):

Center for Disease Control (CDC):

European Medicines Agency (EMEA): d = true

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA):


The Electronic Textbook of Dermatology:

Dermatology Image Bank at the University of Utah School of Medicine: