General information

Subject type: Basic

Coordinator: Carolina Chabrera Sanz

Trimester: Third term

Credits: 6

Teaching staff: 

Lluís Force Sanmartin
Ishar Dalmau Santamaria 
Josep Manuel Cancio Trujillo 


Basic skills
  • CB2_That students know how to apply their knowledge to their job or vocation in a professional way and have the skills that need to be demonstrated through the elaboration and defense of arguments and the resolution of problems within their area of ​​study

Specific skills
  • CE6_Apply health care information and communication technologies and systems

  • CE7_Know the pathophysiological processes and their manifestations and the risk factors that determine the states of health and disease in the different stages of the life cycle

  • CE9_Recognize life-threatening situations and know how to perform basic and advanced life support maneuvers

General competencies
  • CG6_Basing nursing interventions on scientific evidence and available media

  • CG1_To be able, in the field of nursing, to give adequate technical and professional attention to the health needs of the people they care for, in accordance with their state of development of the scientific knowledge of each moment and with the levels of quality and safety that are established in the applicable legal and deontological norms

Transversal competences
  • CT 1 Develop the ability to assess inequalities based on sex and gender, to design solutions


At the beginning of academic training, it is essential for future health professionals to acquire generic but at the same time solid knowledge about the concept of illness. This involves the study of the potential causes that cause it, the mechanisms by which these etiologies act in a harmful way for the body and finally the disorders and symptoms they produce in the function and structure of organs and systems. It is precisely this last concept, which refers to pathophysiology, the final purpose of the subject before us.

These functional as well as structural alterations determine the clinical manifestations of the diseases and it is essential that students can link in a reasoned way the symptoms and signs of each disease with its pathophysiology.

In the subject of pathophysiology (I and II) the generic knowledge applicable to any of the systems and apparatuses of the human organism are introduced; such as the concept of health and disease, aging, injury and cell death, environmental pathology and inheritance, tumor pathology and microbiology. This basic knowledge is always applied through a syndromic perspective to the specific diseases of the different systems that include among others the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, nervous, sensory and osteoarticular system, hematology and metabolism and the endocrinology.

Learning outcomes

LO 8. Deepen the basic anatomical-physiological issues that allow the understanding of organic dysfunction.

LO 9. Understand therapeutic and instrumental measures.

LO 10. Apply the knowledge acquired in laboratory situations and case resolution.

LO 11. Use scientific and technical vocabulary related to pathological processes.

LO 12. Describe and integrate the pathophysiological process of the most prevalent diseases, including critical, advanced and terminal processes.

LO 13. Develop a global and integrative view of the main pathophysiological processes, including critical, advanced and terminal processes.

LO 14. Know the basic life support directions and maneuvers.

LO 15. Describe and identify the manifestations of the main mental disorders.

LO 16. Describe and identify the clinical manifestations of situations arising from gender violence.

LO 26: Identify gender deviations in existing knowledge about health-illness processes

LO 29: Analyze differences by sex and gender inequalities in etiology, anatomy, physiology and pathologies; in differential diagnosis, therapeutic options and pharmacological response and in prognosis: in care for people, as well as in other types of diagnoses and health interventions.


Working methodology

MD1. Lectures, classes aimed at debate and clarification of contents, discussion classes on scientific readings.

MD2. Seminars

MD3. Group work for case studies. Cooperative learning activities.

MD5. Presentations of topics by students. Preparation and presentation of simulated situations. Problem analysis using problem-based learning.

MD6. Face-to-face tutorials in groups or individually

MD11. Autonomous work Readings of recommended texts, articles, guides, etc. Preparation of the topics for group work and for the presentation of the same Study of the contents worked in the subject Preparation of the evaluations


Plenary exhibition sessions (40 hours)

1. Pathology induced by microorganisms (12 hours)

1.1. Microbiology

1.1.1. Microbial nature

1.1.2. Bacteria

1.1.3. Fungi

1.1.4 Virus

1.1.5. Parasites

1.1.6. Characteristics of the main etiological agents of infectious diseases

1.2. Microbiological diagnosis

1.3. Human-microorganism interactions

1.3.1. Concepts: colonization, infectious disease, pathogen, virulence

1.3.2. Human microbiota

1.3.3. Mechanisms of transmission of infectious diseases

1.3.4. Microbial virulence factors

1.3.5. Antibiotic resistance

1.3.6. Risk factors

1.3.7. Infection prevention and control

1.4. Infectious Diseases

1.4.1. Course of an infectious disease

1.4.2. Pneumonia and tracheobronchitis

1.4.3. Pulmonary tuberculosis

1.4.4. Bacteremia, septicemia, SIRS and septic shock

1.4.5. Infectious endocarditis

1.4.6. Nosocomial infection

1.4.7. Prevention and control of nosocomial infection

1.4.8. Isolation precautions to prevent the transmission of infectious agents to health centers

1.4.9. Disinfection and sterilization

1.4.10. Sexually transmitted diseases

1.4.11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection

1.4.12 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection

1.4.13. Gastrointestinal infections (Pathophysiology I, pathology of the digestive tract)

1.4.14. Urinary tract infections (Pathophysiology II, pathology of the nephrourinary system)

1.4.15. Central nervous system infections (Pathophysiology I, nervous system disorders)

1.4.16. Skin and musculoskeletal infections (Pathophysiology I, dermatology and rheumatology)

1.5. Antibiotic allergy

2. Skin disorders (3 hours)

2.1. Skin structure and function

2.2. Anamnesis and physical examination of skin diseases

2.3. Primary elemental skin lesions

2.4. Secondary elemental skin lesions

2.5. Skin infections and soft spots

2.6. Secondary skin infections: bites, surgical wound and pressure scars

2.7. Skin disorders caused by cold and heat

2.8. Skin neoplasms

2.8.1. Precancerous lesions, basal cell and spinocellular carcinomas

2.8.2. Pigmentary tumors: melanocytic nevus and malignant melanoma

2.9. Bank of additional images in dermatological pathology

3. Skeletal Function Disorders (3 hours)

3.1. Bone fractures, joint, muscle-tendon and soft tissue injuries

3.2. Alterations in skeletal growth and development

3.3. Bone remodeling disorders

3.3.1. Quantitative disorders: osteopenia and osteoporosis

3.3.2. Qualitative disorders: osteomalacia and Paget's disease

3.4. Inflammatory arthropathies

3.4.1. Synovitis

3.4.2. Spondylitis

3.5. Osteoarticular infections

3.5.1. Osteomyelitis

3.5.2. Septic arthritis

3.5.3. Joint prosthesis infection

3.6. Degenerative arthropathies: osteoarthritis

3.7. Osteonecrosis: avascular necrosis

3.8. Bone neoplasms

4. Pathology of the digestive tract (7 hours)

4.1. Specific complementary tests for the study of the digestive tract

4.1.1. Fibrogastroscopy, ERCP and fibrocolonoscopy

4.1.2. Esophageal manometry and pH metry

4.2. Esophageal disorders

4.2.1. Alterations of esophageal transit

4.2.2. Hiatus hernia and gastroesophageal reflux

4.3. Gastro-duodenal disorders

4.3.1. Alterations of gastro-duodenal transit

4.3.2. Alterations in gastric secretion

4.3.3. Dyspepsia

4.4. Intestinal disorders

4.4.1. Constipation

4.4.2. Or

4.4.3. Irritable bowel

4.4.4. Diarrheal syndrome

4.4.5. Intestinal malabsorption

4.4.6. Gastrointestinal infections

4.4.7. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

4.5. Liver disorders

4.5.1. Jaundice and colostasis

4.5.2. Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension

4.5.3. Hepatocellular insufficiency

4.5.4. Viral hepatitis

4.5.5. Autoimmune and alcoholic hepatitis

4.5.6. Toxic-induced pathology

4.5.7. Liver tumors

4.6. Disorders of the extrahepatic bile duct

4.6.1. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis

4.6.2. Biliary tumors

4.7. Pancreatic disorders

4.7.1. Acute and chronic pancreatitis

4.7.2. Pancreatic neoplasia

4.8. Vascular pathology of the digestive tract

4.8.1. Intestinal ischemia

4.8.2. Digestive hemorrhage

5. Disorders of the Endocrine System and Metabolism (7 hours)

5.1. Disorders caused by ambient heat: heat stroke

5.2. Thyroid gland disorders

5.2.1. goal

5.2.2. Hyperthyroidism

5.2.3. Hypothyroidism

5.3. Disorder of the parathyroid glands and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium

5.4. Adrenal gland disorder

5.4.1. Anatomical and functional reminder

5.4.2. Addison's disease

5.4.3. Cushing's syndrome

5.4.4. Pheochromocytoma

5.5. Disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

5.5.1. Panhypopituitarism

5.5.2. Hypersomatotropism and low altitude

5.5.3. Hyperprolactinemia

5.5.4. Diabetes insipidus and inappropriate secretion of ADH

5.6. Carbohydrate metabolism disorder: diabetes mellitus

5.7. Disorder of lipid metabolism: hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome and risk


5.8. Disorder of purine and porphyrin metabolism (Pathophysiology II,


5.9. Disorders of metabolism of iron, copper, potassium and acid-base balance

(Pathophysiology II, hematology, digestive and nephrourinary)

6. Nervous System Disorders (8 hours)

6.1. Pathology of the first and second motor neurons

6.2. Pathology of the neuromuscular junction and striated muscle

6.2.1. Myasthenia

6.2.2. Myopathies

6.3. Pathology of motor coordination: ataxia

6.4. Pathology of the extrapyramidal system

6.4.1. Parkinson's

6.4.2. Hyperkinetic disorders

6.5. Pathology of sensitivity

6.5.1. Sensitive syndromes

6.5.2. Pain

6.5.3. Pathology of the sensory systems

6.6. Pathology of the autonomic nervous system

6.7. Pathology of the spinal cord

6.8. Degenerative neuropathies

6.9. Pathology of the peripheral nervous system

6.10.Pathology of the cerebral cortex

6.11.Pathology of the state of consciousness

6.11.1. Eat

6.11.2. Acute confusional state

6.11.3. Syncope

6.11.4. Epilepsy

6.11.5. Sleep disorders

6.12.Pathology of cerebrospinal fluid

6.12.1. Hydrocephalus

6.12.2. Meningitis, meningoencephalitis and brain abscess

6.12.3. Endocranial hypertension

6.13.Neurovascular pathology

6.13.1. Cerebral ischemia

6.13.2. Cerebral hemorrhage

6.14. Headache

6.15. Neoplasms of the central nervous system

7. Practical radiology applied to the pathologies of the different apparatuses (Seminar of 2 hours)

7.1. Concept of Radiological Safety

7.2. Basic interpretation of chest and abdomen radiology.

7.3. Conventional radiological studies with oral and / or intravenous contrast

6.13.3. Pielography

6.13.4. Gastrointestinal tract and opaque enema

7.4. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Nuclear (NMR) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

7.5. Basic scintigraphic studies: Bone and lung scintigraphy, isotopic renogram and

Myocardial SPECT.


Seminars (9 hours)

  • Seminar 1. Introduction to radiology
  • Seminar 2. Clinical cases of infections and nosocomial infection
  • Seminar 3. Review and resolution of clinical cases of Neurology and Digestive
  • Seminar 4. Resolution of a syllabus of short questions, summary of Pathophysiology 1 with oral presentation in class.
  • Seminar 5. Interactive session with analysis of the answers of the partial examination of the subject carried out by the whole class.

Learning activities

Activities ECTS Hours Working methodology
AF1. Master class 2 50 MD1. Lectures, classes aimed at debate and clarification of contents, discussion classes on scientific readings.

AF2. Face-to-face tutorials

AF6 Group work



MD2. Seminars

MD3. Group work for case studies. Cooperative learning activities.

MD5. Presentations of topics by students. Preparation and presentation of simulated situations. Problem analysis using problem-based learning.

MD6. Face-to-face tutorials in groups or individually

AF7. Individual work

AF9. Personal study

3,7 92,5 MD11. Autonomous work Readings of recommended texts, articles, guides, etc. Preparation of the topics for group work and for the presentation of the same Study of the contents worked in the subject Preparation of the evaluations


Evaluation system

The assessment of generic competences will be carried out continuously through group sessions and the quality of individual work. Different activities will be requested throughout the term as a source of evaluation, so that the student will be able to know, also in a continuous way, his own evolution.

The evaluation of the specific competences will be carried out by carrying out two written tests on the subject taught in the plenary classes, and the analysis of the participation and of the individual and group works presented in the seminars throughout the term.

A system of quantitative (from 0 to 10) and qualitative (suspended, approved, notable, excellent and honors enrollment) will be used according to RD 1125/2003.

The following table specifies the evaluation systems and their weight in the final grade

Evaluation activityLoves Ponderacion
SE1. Elimination partial written test of the evaluated subject 25%
SE3 and SE4. Seminars, group work, participation, preparation and presentation of simulated situations, cooperative learning activities and assessment of the study during the course through moodle tests 50%
SE1. Written test at the end of the term 25% - 50%
Recovery period  
Written test of recovery, at the end of the term, by the students that have not reached the competitions foreseen along the course 50%

SE1. Written test at the end of the term: 25% for students who have passed the partial exam and 50% for those who are examined in the whole subject of Pathophysiology I.

Recovery period: the written recovery test will include all the subject of Pathophysiology I, regardless of the mark obtained in the partial or final exams. The remaining 50% of the grade will correspond to the continuous assessment and seminars held during the academic year.

The evaluation criteria of the activities and the characteristics of the different written tests will be presented in the first days of class and will be posted in the virtual classroom of the ESCS where they can be consulted by all students thus favoring the clarity and transparency of the same.

In the partial exam it will be essential to pass and be able to eliminate the subject, to show that all the knowledge imparted has been achieved, by obtaining a minimum grade of 5 out of 10.

At the time of the second partial, final and recovery exam, the average will only be taken with the continuous assessment and the seminars, if a score equal to or higher than 5 out of 10 is obtained in the written test.

To pass the course, a minimum final grade of 5 out of 10 must be achieved, once the written tests and the continuous assessment have been considered.

The total or partial copy in any of the learning activities will mean a "Not Presented" in the subject, without option to present in the proof of recovery and without prejudice of the opening of a file for this reason. 



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